There are several disorders that can affect the fertility of male dogs, including disorders of the penis and prepuce, as well as disorders of the testes and epididymis. A board certified reproductive veterinarian can perform a pre-breeding exam on your dog to look for these disorders and other factors that may impact fertility.
These disorders include:
Phimosis. This is a condition in which the prepuce (foreskin) cannot be fully retracted over the head of the penis. It can cause difficulty with breeding, and can also lead to infection and inflammation.
Paraphimosis. This is a condition in which the prepuce becomes trapped behind the head of the penis, cutting off blood flow. It can cause severe pain and swelling, and can lead to tissue damage and necrosis.
Penile hypospadias. This is a congenital abnormality in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis, rather than at the tip. It can make breeding difficult or impossible.
Cryptorchidism. This is a condition in which one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotum. It can lead to decreased sperm production and infertility.
Testicular torsion. This is a condition in which the testicle twists on its blood supply, cutting off blood flow. It can cause severe pain and swelling, and can lead to tissue damage and necrosis.
Epididymitis. This is an inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube that lies next to the testicles and carries sperm from the testicles to the vas deferens. It can cause pain, swelling, and fever, and can lead to infertility.
Balanoposthitis. This is a condition that involves inflammation of the penis and prepuce, it can be caused by infection, trauma, or allergies. It can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty breeding.
Urethral prolapse. This is a condition in which the urethra protrudes out of the end of the penis. It can be caused by trauma, infection, or a congenital abnormality, and can lead to difficulty urinating and difficulty breeding.
Testicular degeneration. This is a condition in which the testicles become smaller and less functional over time. It can be caused by aging, injury, or disease, and can lead to decreased sperm production and infertility.
Testicular tumors. Testicular tumors can be malignant or benign, they can cause pain, swelling and can lead to decreased sperm production and infertility.
Brucella. Brucella canis is a bacterial infection that can affect the reproductive organs of dogs, including the testicles, epididymis, and prostate. It can lead to infertility and a decreased ability to breed.
It is important to note that these disorders can have other symptoms like pain, swelling, difficulty urinating, and difficulty breeding, and a veterinarian should be consulted to diagnose and treat these conditions. Regular veterinary checkups, proper hygiene and sanitation practices, and a healthy diet and exercise can help prevent and manage many of these conditions.